The human body is a very complicated. The movement system consists of a number of elements: over 200 bones, even more joints, more than 600 muscles, numerous tendons, ligaments, fascias… One of the essential factors for the good function of this complicated system is the balance of skeletal muscle properties (power, tone, elasticity) However, in practice, we often see that some muscle has too much or too little tonus in relation to its functional antagonist. The disturbed balance of one pair of muscles in time affects the compensatory disbalance of the first adjacent and then the distant muscle pairs. This situation is the basis for chronic musculoskeletal pain.
There are numerous sources of muscular disbalance. Beside acute injuries, a common cause is the choice of the wrong method of exercise. So to speak, imprecise formation of training in the gym where the athlete is guided by his wishes, without precise diagnosis of the current condition and without sufficient respect for the rules of the training process and adequate precautions. A typical example is an increase in the tone of the front-sideline muscular wall without adequate balancing of the muscle tone of the shoulder zone, the lower part of the back and the back of the thighs. Instead of the desired muscular figure, most often there is a pronounced chest kyphosis due to the shoulder movement forward and downwards and the external rotation of the blades.
Some sports and recreational activities, such as cycling, include the specific non-physiological position of the body, which represent increased risk of muscle disbalance. In these activities, it is particularly important to carry out adequate conditioning to prevent the occurrence of undesirable functional and structural consequences.
If the muscle tone disorder lasts for a long time, it can lead to structural changes – deformities. However, the process can run vice versa: structural changes, such as damage to the articular cartilage, reduce the painless range of movement in the damaged joint, leaving the ideal level of movement and physiological position in that joint. As a result, some muscles have changed in the new biomechanical situation and the function is impeded and become more susceptible to damage and painful syndromes arise.
Adequately dosed exercise has a significant effect on the structure and function of the bone-joint system and muscle. In training and therapy, an increase in the tonus of the weakened muscle takes precedence over the deliberate weakening of the excess muscle. You should avoid a common mistake that exercises affect both muscles that are in imbalance. For this reason, the correct and sufficiently precise diagnosis that the muscle is the source of the problem is a key effect of success. Like any drug, the exercise should be dosed on the basis of sufficiently precise diagnostics, and it is being successfully implemented today thanks to the development of software programs. One of them is the CoreFitMax program.
Dr Duško Spasovski
Orthopedic surgeon and professor of physical culture.